CNS development is addressed in dedicated article.
Females experience early adolescence as most stressful due to physical changes, while males will find late adolescence more taxing, if they do not develop hight/muscle mass commensurable with peers.
Teens prefer unisex peer group during early adolescence (10-13yo) and begin to develop heterosexual peer groups in mid- and individual relationships in late-adolescence. At 10-13yo, teens begin to experience an emotional break from parents and prefer friends to family. During med-adolescence, however, there is ambivalence about separation/distancing from the family.
Cognitive and Moral Development
- Development of abstract and formal operational thinking during mid-adolescence
- development of hypothetical-deductive, propositional thinking.
- Physical and sexual maturity precede cognitive and emotional maturity.
Erikson's stages of development
Idenitity vs Role confusion conflict characterizes adolescent age; successful resolution will lead to strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life. Fidelity is the basic virtue of this stage.
Kohlberg's moral development
Morality of the preschool period is characterized by avoiding punishment and striving for reward (jail) Conventional morality is based on the notions of authority or mutual benefit (social order)) Principled morality is based on general internalized moral principles (relative value of life and property).